Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
The antibody or the immunity globulin are a big Y the graphemic protein be recognized by the immune system usage and turn foreign object to be like the germ and virus neutrally.The antibody approves a concrete target calling antigen. antibodies include two station points paratopes that is called to tie up antigen.These a specials that the structure is like likeness and may be valued and locks and is concrete for the antigen call epitope can be valued to be like the likeness and key.
This locks concretely with key with each other a function to allow the antibody marking microorganism or a cell that is infected for attack by the part of other immune systems.
Antibody of binding turn its antigen target probably and neutrally for example obstruct directly is basic for its existence and the growth microbial at the body of part.The production of these antibodies is the main function of the body fluid immune system.
More and concretely the antibody is the sugar egg white superfamily to belong to immunity globulin; The term antibody and the immunity globulin compatibility are usually used for.They can take place with two forms is hidden and can fuse a form from an of the cell and the film spring up the fish-eye B cell surface and call the form(BCR) of the B cell feeling organ.The BCR is only found binding in the B cell surface and antigen allow the B cell to look up antigen to these proteins is an existence in the body.Once the B cell tie to their antigen and is activated their distinction goes into or the antibody factory be called the blood plasma cell or after will existence at body several year-old saving unit allow organism to remember that antigen and respond quickly to expose in future.
Under the many condition the B cell makes with each other in order to the T assistant cell is a necessity to cause the B cell with therefore the antibody generation activates a function to follow behind antigen well binding.Can fuse antibody is released into the blood and the organization fluid and many secretions continue to survey for invade of microorganism.
二、The type of the immunity globulin isotypes :
There are five type antibodies in the mammal: There is the place that the current and the type at the person( Ig representative the immunity globulin) besides. these are categorized according to settle in their heavy chain son Heng of the differentiation on the realm.(pay respects to underneath for more information concerning the antibody structure distinguishing feature)Each immunity globulin set dissimilarity is in its living creature products and the location with turn in to handle different antigen.
Some antibodies form complexes that bind to multiple antigen molecules
IgA can be found in areas containing mucus (e.g. in the gut in the respiratory tract or in the urogenital tract) and prevents the colonization of mucosal areas by pathogens.
IgD functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells.
IgE binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells (the underlying mechanism of allergy) and also provides protection against parasitic worms.
IgG (in its four forms) provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens.
IgM is expressed on the surface of B cells and also in a secreted form with very high affinity for eliminating pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated immunity (i.e. before there is sufficient IgG to do the job)
Growth don't whole IgMs with definitely only B cells are in their cell surface.(this is the surface certain form is not being hidden of the immunity globulin of form)Once the innocent B cell arrives maturity it expresses the IgM and IgD probably in its surface- This is requite the B cell' mature' these two immunity globulin isotypeses of the co indicate and prepare to respond antigen. after the immunity globulin numerator of betroth and antigen the B cell activates causing cell with start dividing the line and distinguish analyse into the antibody.(sometimes call the blood plasma cell)With this form that is activated the B cell produces the immunity globulin to be hidden of form and isn't a film- Certain form.Some daughter's cells of the Bs cells that is activated accept the isotype switch the B cell starts expressing heavy chain son of other Igs of mechanism and as a result produce the IgD IgA or(usually) IgG antibody isotypes.
三、 The structure and the function of the immunity globulin:
The immunity globulin by discard the chain composing more two among them are same heavy chains twos are light chains the immunity globulin is divided into kinds of among them the IgG is most a kind of is the most in the particularly afferent and outside liquid can resist the microorganism and toxin(toxins) the IgG can implant to repair a body can also pass placenta.
The IgG can be divided into four kinds of IgG1 G2 G3 G4s.The IgG1 IgG3 mainly resists the protein antigen waiting for as the familiar virus infection.In order to resist main antibody of containing the saccharides Jia film germ the IgG2 develops to lack of most slowly and most easily.And the IgG4 have something to do with allergic food responding.
The IgA comes together the body existence by the dichotomy son in secrete the liquid the dichotomy sub- middle links by secreting a slice(the secretory component).The IgM is five numerators to come together a body mainly is existed in blood vessel inside is the globulin that becomes first in the immunity process IgM price number high so the result for gathering with the germ Ning best so the IgM is the most strong a defense in the germ blood disease.The IgD is most existed in lymphoid ball surface may be an in the light of antigen to accept a machine.And IgE with some send to get the insect infection relevant;The condition of illness of the allergy is also caused by IgE.
四、 The cell and the immunity globulin become process:
The immunity globulin creation in the B cell produce the IgM in the cell quality at first and first expect at this time of the B cell call it is a Pre-B cell.In the process of continuing to divide hereafter if the existence contain the Bruton tyrosine kinase IgM then would by cell inside move to the cell surface formation immature B cell gradually.
Then the IgM of the afterbirth form will change after the of the B cell with the Ls of the T activated by antigen cell at under lymphoid hormone existence combining have a thin afterbirth of the mature B of the IgG IgA and the IgE afterbirth form immunity globulin.The mature B cell will divide formation to make and secrete the syrup cell of a certain and particular immunity globulin or remember cell alone after being activated further.A B cell only can produce a kind of antibody.
Under normal condition the mankind's lymphoid knot and spleen Be being born the vogue not yet finished whole growth maturity unless the embryo has already been subjected to the incitement of the antigensuch as German measles bow syrup the congenital infection of the insect or other tiny living creatures in the womb lymphoid the organization just will develop particularly and cause embryo of lgA IgM rising.Otherwise be born in addition to because IgG can by the female body is through the placenta pass an embryo and make IgG density and adult close by outside the density of other immunity globulins is all very low.
五、 The function of the antobody:
The main function of the antibody
1.Moderate reaction(moderate toxin and stop the source body and cell to combine)
2.Coagulate to precipitate reaction(promote huge bite cell to gobble up a function)
3.Dissolve the germ reaction(activate to repair body system)
Antibodies are clonally generated for binding single specific antigens which may compose specific molecules on the surfaces of viruses or cells. The antibodies can link these viruses or cells together causing them to agglutinate (coagulate) so phagocytes can capture them.[
Activation of complement
Antibodies that bind to surface antigens on for example a bacterium will bind the first component of the complement system with their Fc region and initiate activation of the 'classical' complement system.This results in the killing of bacteria in two ways. First the binding of the antibody and complement molecules marks the microbe for ingestion by phagocytes in a process called opsonization. These phagocytes are attracted by some of the complement molecules that are generated in the complement cascade. Secondly some complement system components form a membrane attack complex to assist the antibodies to kill bacteria directly.
Activation of effector cells
Some cells (e.g. Mast cells and phagocytes) have specific receptors on their cell surface for binding antibodies. These are called Fc receptors and as the name suggests these receptors interact with the Fc region of some antibodies (e.g. IgA IgG IgE).
The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell will trigger the effector function of that cell (e.g. phagocytes will phagocytose mast cells will degranulate) that will ultimately result in destruction of the invading microbe. The Fc receptors are isotype-specific which gives a great flexibility to the immune system because different situations require only certain immune mechanisms to respond to antigens.
Schematic diagram showing Fc receptor interaction with an antibody-coated microbial pathogen.
Can cure a different dermatitis while cell is dividing the collagen secreted can make to divide of the cell develops function and activates function fully.
And have various function factors among them can the better help is virussafe with germ of encroach upon.