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豬膠原蛋白(萃取液)

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ABSTRACT
The main extracellular matrix components of the lung, type I and III collagens, were studied in chronic allograft rejection developing in a porcine heterotopic bronchial transplantation model. Specific porcine complementary DNA probes were constructed for detection of the expression of type I and III procollagen messenger RNAs in the bronchial wall structures and in the obliterative plug by in situ hybridization. In autografts, and in allografts immunosuppressed with 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin, cyclosporine A, and methylprednisolone, no histological changes of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) developed, and the number of fibroblast-like cells expressing type I and III procollagen mRNA remained low. In nontreated allografts obliterating within 21 d, a preponderance of fibroblast-like cells showing positivity for type III procollagen mRNA existed in the obliterative plug and bronchial wall. This study shows for the first time the temporal and spatial activation of type I and III procollagen genes during the course of obliterative bronchiolitis. The number of cells expressing procollagen III mRNA increased parallel to developing obliteration and fibrosis in nontreated allografts, whereas autografts and immunosuppressed allografts exhibited no such trend. This finding suggests a positive association between type III collagen mRNA expression in fibroblast-like cells and development of obliterative bronchiolitis.
INTRODUCTION
A Frenchman who was named the Pa article(Papin) spoke of in a report that cooked procedure in 1682, he tried to refine gum form material from the bone.
The collagen first time is admitted to is a kind of food that has value to is in Napoleon's times, at that time is blockaded a British period, it was used to supply to need very much protein of France.
The first English patent was recognized in 1754 issuable.
In 1870 the wave was a collagen especially----Protein.
Since 1950's, the collagen is industrial a is strengthened
Now, the high standard health production and product quality.
In the human body can natural formation, account for 25%-30% of the healthy human body protein total amount about
Be located the leather layer in, fiber the female cell manufacturing come out of the fiber form protein, have to prop up power goodly, its role is like to support reinforcing bar structure of rising the skin organization, can let the skin look plentiful smooth
More than 25 years old, the collagen runs off speed high in born speed, the skin starts appearing the evidence of the decrepitude
The collagen enriches to contain
1. Glycine 25~30%,
2. proline12%
3. alanine 11%
4. hydroxyproline10%
5. hydroxylysine 0.5%
All is an essential An Ji is sour not
Chronic rejection in the form of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the major cause of long-term morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation . The exact pathogenesis of OB is unknown, but the respiratory epithelium is considered to be a potential allogeneic target for immunological effector mechanisms . Progressive damage and loss of airway epithelium are accompanied by increased production of cytokines and fibrogenic growth factors indicated as having a role in inducing the fibroproliferative events leading to OB . Histologically, OB is characterized by inflammation of the small airways and gradually progressing occlusion of the airway lumen by fibrous tissue, permanently obliterating the bronchioli .
The main constituents of lung extracellular matrix are collagens I and III . Fibroblasts are the major producers of type I and III collagens in the lung, but endothelial, epithelial, alveolar type II, and smooth muscle cells also synthesize these collagens . Both collagen types occur in bronchial mucosa and subintima . Changes in the distribution and increase in the production of interstitial collagens I and III exist in fibrotic pulmonary diseases . The presence of collagens I and III in subepithelial fibrotic lesions has been a consistent finding in immunohistochemical studies of the airways of patients with OB . In transbronchial biopsies from lung transplant patients, increased amounts of type III collagen deposition appear in clinically manifest OB.
Investigations of the mechanisms of OB have used several experimental animal models with either ortho- or heterotopic transplantation of lung, bronchial, or tracheal structures (15- 17). Our group has developed a porcine heterotopic bronchial transplantation model exhibiting histological changes similar to those of human OB following lung transplantation. Total epithelial destruction and permanent luminal obliteration occur rapidly in allografts without immunosuppression . In lung allografts, prevention of the obliterative process is achieved with combination therapy of cyclosporine A (CsA), methylprednisolone (MP), and RAD, that is, 40-O- (2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin .
Although collagen types I and III are found in OB lesions, their transcriptional activity and the tissue distribution of cells expressing these procollagen messenger RNAs (mRNAs) have not been characterized. For further understanding of the deposition of these extracellular matrix proteins in the obliterative process, we investigated the changes in the temporal and spatial expression of procollagen I and III mRNA in our pig heterotopic bronchial allograft model. We also compared the activation of these procollagen genes during the rapid and prevented obliteration.


The Role of Collagen in the Body
Collagen is not scattered as individual molecules throughout the body, but is directed to form parts of higher-ordered structures. These structures differ according to their location in the body, however it is believed that each is composed in the same manner from several stages of increasing complexity, as shown in the following figure.
For example, the cornea is composed of collagen, and its transparency is sustained by its unique higher-order structure.
In addition, intermolecular cross-linking occurs between collagen molecules in such higher-ordered structures, and these links serve to increase the strength of tissue and to ensure temperature stability.


Extraction of Collagen
Collagen is widely used in the medical, cosmetic, and research fields. Currently, collagen is obtained from animal tissues, but it is difficult to do so because collagen in the body is completely bound up due to its intermolecular cross-linking. The solution to this problem lies in cleaving these crosslinks, or solubilizing the collagen. One method of collagen solubilization utilizes proteases, enzymes that break the crosslinks between collagen molecules, as indicated in the following figure. Collagen obtained through solubilization is called Atelocollagen.

METHODS
Experimental Model
Nonrelated domestic pigs served as donors and recipients. The animals received humane care in compliance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NIH Publication No. 86-23, revised 1985. Heterotopic bronchial transplantations were performed as described. Briefly, for anesthesia, intramuscular ketamine sulfate (10-15 mg/kg), azaperone (10-15 mg/kg), atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg), and intravenous sodium pentobarbital (6-12 mg/kg), diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), and pancuronium bromide (2-4 mg), plus inhaled enflurane were used. In the operative procedure, bronchial implants were transplanted subcutaneously into the ventral side of the recipient. Three groups, with four pigs in each, were formed: autografts, nontreated allografts, and allografts treated with a daily oral dose of CsA 10 mg/kg, RAD 1.5 mg/kg, and MP 20 mg to prevent obliteration. The grafts were removed on postoperative Days 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, 30, and 60. Postoperative pain was controlled with intramuscular diclophenic acid (37.5 mg). At the end of the follow-up, the animals were euthanized with intravenous sodium pentobarbital.
Histological Evaluation
Epithelial destruction, luminal obliteration, fibrosis (defined as a pathological increase of connective tissue composed of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix) in the bronchial wall (considered as the area beneath the epithelium to the cartilage), total fibrosis (bronchial wall fibrosis and fibrosis in the pericartilaginous area surrounding the cartilaginous structures), bronchial wall inflammation (defined as the numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells in the tissue), and cartilage destruction and new cartilage formation were graded on a semiquantitative scale of 0 to 3 in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. In fibrotic areas, the relation between cellular and extracellular matrix components was scored as equal, < 1, or > 1.
Determination of Total Tissue Collagen
The hydroxyproline content of total tissue samples was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Total collagen content was estimated, assuming that hydroxyproline comprises 13.7% collagen by weight.
Construction of cDNA Clones for Porcine pro 1(I) Collagen and pro 1(III) Collagen mRNAs
For detection of porcine-specific mRNAs, complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were constructed for porcine pro (I) and pro 1(III) collagen mRNAs. Briefly, total RNA was extracted from experimental granulation tissue by the method of Chomczynski and Sacchi, and synthesized into cDNA by reverse transcription. Aliquots of cDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction with primers based on existing human, mouse, and rat sequences .
Northern Hybridization
Total RNA was extracted from the bronchial samples by an established method. Northern hybridization was performed as previously described by use of constructed cDNA clones as hybridization probes. The bound probe was detected by autoradiography, and the relative intensity of the bands analyzed by a computer-linked densitometer. Results were corrected for minor variations in the amount of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA in the respective samples.
In Situ Hybridization
Digoxigenin-labeled antisense and sense cRNA probes were created from the above-described cDNA clones. Paraffin-embedded bronchial samples were cut into sections and used for in situ hybridization performed as described previously. Staining seen only with the antisense probe was considered positive. The distribution and number of positive cells for pro 1(I) and pro 1(III) collagen mRNA were analyzed separately in the obliterative plug, in the bronchial wall, and in the pericartilaginous area. Positive cells were counted in five randomly chosen microscopic fields from each area at ×100 objective magnification. The number of positive cells was related to the area of negative, pale staining microscopic field.
Statistical Analysis
All data are expressed as mean + SEM. Variation between the groups was analyzed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis by ranks. The rank sums were then used for Dunn's test at a significance level of 5%. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant.
RESULTS
Histopathology
The histopathological findings are shown in detail in Table E1 in the online data supplement.
Epithelium. In nontreated allografts, the respiratory epithelium was completely destroyed by Day 10. In autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts, after initial ischemic damage, normal ciliated epithelium was maintained throughout follow-up. Significance (p < 0.05) in epithelial destruction was reached between nontreated and immunosuppressed allografts at early assessment points and between autografts and nontreated allografts at later points.


Obliteration. No luminal obliteration was evident in autografts and in allografts receiving immunosuppressive therapy and in allografts receiving immunosuppressive therapy In nontreated allografts, fibroproliferative tissue protruding into the bronchial lumen was first seen on Day 7. Luminal obliteration was complete by Day 21 (p < 0.05 when compared with autografts and immunosuppressed allografts); whereafter, in the luminal fibrous tissue, the extracellular matrix component gradually increased. In the course of the follow-up, the degree of lymphocytic inflammation in the obliterative plug decreased to nonexistent levels.


Figure 1. Photomicrographs of an autograft, a nontreated allograft, and an allograft immunosuppressed with RAD, CsA, and MP on Day 21 (HE staining; original magnification: ×10). (A) Normal epithelium and bronchial structures in autograft. (B ) Nontreated allograft exhibiting total luminal obliteration by fibroproliferative tissue (arrows), bronchial wall inflammation, and fibrosis (arrowhead ) and destruction of cartilaginous structures (double
Bronchial wall. Bronchial wall fibrosis in autografts and in nontreated allografts consisted of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components in equal proportions. In autografts, fibrosis remained generally mild. In nontreated allografts, fibrosis increased from mild to moderate by Day 10, persisting thereafter. In immunosuppressed allografts, fibrosis remained mild, and on Days 14, 21, and 30 only sparse areas of fibrosis (p < 0.05 when compared with nontreated allografts), consisting mainly of cellular components were present in the bronchial wall. In all groups, a highly fibrous capsule had formed around the implants, contributing to total fibrosis.
The bronchial wall in autografts showed only slight lymphocytic inflammation. In nontreated allografts, by Day 7, infiltration of inflammatory cells was moderate, and remained moderate to severe, with a significant (p < 0.05) difference from that of autografts. In immunosuppressed allografts, inflammation was milder than in nontreated allografts.
Cartilaginous structures. In autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts, bronchial cartilage remained viable. In nontreated allografts, nearly all cartilaginous structures were destroyed by Day 14, with a significant (p < 0.05) difference from autografts on Day 14 and thereafter. Formation of new cartilage was apparent in autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts.
Total Collagen Content
Data on total bronchial collagen content are presented in Table 1. In nontreated allografts, total collagen content decreased below the level of total collagen in native bronchial tissue. An increased total collagen content was evident in autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts at all assessment points. The difference between autografts and nontreated allografts reached significance (p < 0.05) on Days 7, 21, and 60, with total collagen content higher in autografts.

TABLE 1
TOTAL COLLAGEN CONTENT IN NATIVE BRONCHIAL TISSUE AND IN BRONCHIAL AUTO- AND ALLOGRAFTS*


Groups (n= 4)


D0


D3


D7


D10


D14


D21


D30


D60

Native bronchial   tissue


22.0 + 4.2















Autografts




19.8 + 1.5


48.1 + 2.4


29.8 + 3.6


26.9 + 1.3


36.6 + 7.8


50.3 + 19.4


67.7 + 13.9

Allografts




8.6 + 1.9


10.4 + 2.0


12.5 + 1.5


10.0 + 2.0


9.1 + 1.0


8.1 + 2.2


10.6 + 2.3

Immuno-   suppressed   allografts




13.9 + 4.6


21.4 + 4.1


16.9 + 4.2


19.1 + 6.3


27.7 + 4.0


29.8 + 14.4


34.0 + 7.6

*All data expressed as microgram of total collagen/milligram of sample wet weight (mean + SEM). D = days following transplantation.





















Quantification of Procollagen I and III mRNA Expression
Clone pPCol1a1-1 detected two mRNAs of approximately 5.0 and 5.9 kb, and clone pPCol3a1-1 one mRNA of approximately 5.1 kb in size in Northern hybridization. Under the stringent washing conditions used, no cross-hybridization to pro 1(I) and pro 1(III) collagen mRNAs was observed. The transcriptional activity of procollagen I increased in all groups by Day 7 . On Days 14 and 21, type I collagen mRNA expression was induced in immunosuppressed allografts with no obliteration. Quantification of procollagen III mRNA showed no significant differences between groups. In immunosuppressed allografts, induction of type III mRNA expression was seen on the same days as of type I collagen mRNA.

Figure 2. Northern hybridization of total RNAs extracted from bronchial autografts, nontreated allografts, and allografts immunosuppressed with RAD, CsA, and MP for pro 1(I) collagen, pro 1(III) collagen, and GAPDH mRNAs on Days 7 and 21.


Figure 3. Summary of Northern analyses of bronchial autografts, nontreated allografts, and allografts immunosuppressed with RAD, CsA, and MP (n = 4 in each group) for mRNA levels of pro 1(I) collagen (A) and pro 1(III) collagen (B). The mRNA levels expressed as densitometric units (mean + SEM) corrected for GAPDH mRNA levels in the same samples. *No data.

Localization of Procollagen I and III mRNA Expression
In situ hybridization for procollagen I and III mRNA revealed a positive signal with antisense probes but not with sense probes. In native tissue, only sparse positivity for procollagen III was visible in blood vessels in the bronchial wall. Almost no positivity for procollagen I mRNA was detectable. In auto- and allografts, the expression of type I and III mRNA was detected nearly exclusively in fibroblast-like cells and in occasional smooth muscle cells.
Obliterative plug. In nontreated allografts obliterating within 21 d, a positive label for procollagen I and III mRNA appeared in fibroblast-like cells in the connective tissue plugs invading the bronchial lumen. In early obliterative lesions on Day 7, cells positive for procollagen I and III mRNA existed in equal numbers . On Day 14, the majority of the positive cells were expressing type III mRNA, which was the case also at subsequent assessment points.

Figure 4. Number of positive cells per microscopic field for type I and III procollagen mRNA detected by in situ hybridization. Nontreated allografts show a preponderance of and increase in fibroblast-like cells expressing type III mRNA in the obliterative plug and in the bronchial wall. In autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts, no similar trend occurs between the numbers of type III and type I procollagen mRNA-positive cells in the bronchial wall. Cells were counted at ×100 objective magnification in five microscopic fields. All data expressed as mean + SEM, n = 4 in each group.

Bronchial wall. In autografts, the number of cells expressing type I and III mRNA transcripts decreased by Day 14 and remained low thereafter. In nontreated allografts, only a few cells positive for type I and III mRNA appeared on Days 3, 7, and 10. Fibroblast-like cells expressing procollagen III mRNA started to increase on Day 14 and were significantly (p < 0.05) augmented on Days 21 and 30 compared with numbers of autografts. A slight decrease in the number of positive cells followed thereafter. In nontreated allografts with rapid obliteration, dominance of fibroblast-like cells showing a positive signal for type III collagen mRNA was evident at all assessment points, being most prominent from Day 14 onward. In immunosuppressed allografts, no similar increase appeared in the number of procollagen III mRNA-positive cells compared with procollagen I mRNA-positive cells. The pattern of fibroblast-like cell numbers expressing type I and III collagen mRNAs resembled that of autografts.
Pericartilaginous area. The number of positive cells for procollagen I and III mRNA in pericartilaginous areas is expressed in Table 2 as a percentage of total cell count. In all groups, the majority of positive cells were detected in this area at nearly all assessment points. Comparison of absolute cell numbers in autografts and in immunosuppressed allografts gave a preponderance of procollagen I mRNA to type III mRNA expression in fibroblast-like cells, whereas nontreated allografts showed the opposite finding.

TABLE 2
PROCOLLAGEN TYPE I AND III mRNA POSITIVE CELLS DETECTED BY IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN THE PERICARTILAGINOUS AREA EXPRESSED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CELL COUNT OBSERVED IN ALL AREAS*

Procollagen Type mRNA


D3


D7


D10


D14


D21


D30


D60


I


59


71


74


100


82




76


III


35


48


62


45


81


100


55


I


71


80


94


48


39


46


52


III


72


78


65


34


34


34


26


I


96


81


73


68


68


95


48


III


55


66


95


57


38


72


35


* Obliterative plug, bronchial wall, and pericartilaginous area. D = days following transplantation.



DISCUSSION
Development of irreversible fibrotic changes in OB is a complex process. To date, only a few studies have explored extracellular matrix deposition in OB, and none has focused on collagen gene expression in this disorder. In our large animal model of OB, pathological changes in walls and lumina of small bronchi are presumably triggered by epithelial injury. Our model provides an opportunity to study chronic rejection in repeated adequate-size samples in tissue areas where OB is known to occur in human lung transplant recipients.
In studies of human OB, extracellular matrix deposition has been analyzed in endobronchial biopsy specimens, which represent only a small fraction of bronchial wall or in postmortem samples, in which no development of the process can be followed. In this study, we assessed the cells expressing procollagen I and III genes during the development of OB in bronchial samples consisting of the full circumference of the bronchus. We demonstrated that development of OB was associated with an increase in fibroblast-like cells expressing procollagen III mRNA. The predominance of cells expressing procollagen III mRNA increased parallel to progressing luminal obliteration, together with a histologically identified increment in the amount of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the bronchial wall.
In previous studies of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, the cells in fibrotic lesions expressing procollagen I and III mRNA were primarily derived from cells resembling fibroblasts and were located in the tissue underlying the airway epithelium. Increases in the numbers of cells expressing procollagen I and III genes and enhanced mRNA expression by individual cells were both suggested to contribute to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. However, these studies did not compare the expression of the procollagen genes. In fibrotic processes, an increase in type III collagen synthesis is suggested to occur in proliferating fibroblasts as a response to various stimuli including inflammation.
Increased amounts of aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen have been detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with fibrosing alveolitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and pulmonary edema, predicting poor prognosis. In OB following lung transplantation, an increased deposition of type III collagen in the bronchial submucosa correlates with poor lung function. In silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis, an increased ratio of type III:type I collagen has also occurred. Similarly, in our study, the dominance of type III collagen expression in fibroblast-like cells in the obliterative plug and in the bronchial wall of rapidly obliterating allografts supports the hypothesis of a positive association between increased synthesis and deposition of procollagen III and severity of the disorder.
In our autografts, minor fibrotic changes with fibroblast-like cells expressing procollagen I and III mRNA in the bronchial wall indicate that the nonimmunological injury caused by our heterotopic method activates procollagen gene expression. In immunosuppressed allografts in which obliteration was prevented, histological findings and cell numbers producing type I and III procollagen mRNA resembled those of autografts. Although in both groups fibroblast-like cells expressing I and III procollagen mRNAs were detectable, only insignificant pathological alterations were evident. In the bronchial wall, an important finding in autografts and immunosuppressed allografts was the unaltered number of cells expressing procollagen III mRNA.
The quantitation of total collagen and procollagen I and III mRNA did not directly correlate with the increase in positive cells detected by in situ hybridization. The changes in the collagen type II derived from cartilage probably affected more the total collagen content than the relatively small fibrous areas in the bronchial wall or lumina. Quantification of mRNAs by Northern hybridization does not identify the tissue origin of mRNA. At some assessment points, cells positive for procollagen I and III mRNA were abundant in the pericartilaginous area, even in the total absence of positivity in the bronchial wall. This finding may explain the high expression of procollagen genes in immunosuppressed allografts at some assessment points when only a few positive cells were evident in the bronchial wall.
In conclusion, mechanisms leading to extracellular matrix deposition in OB are still in part unknown. This study shows for the first time that expression of procollagen I and III mRNA in fibroblast-like cells is found in OB lesions, along with a preponderance of and increase in cells expressing type III mRNA. In autografts and in allografts with immunosuppression adequate to prevent obliterative airway disease, only a minor degree of procollagen gene activation occurred, and no changes in the genetic activity between type I and III collagen similar to those in rapidly obliterating allografts. This observation indicates that one of the mechanisms in the fibrotic process of OB is an increase in fibroblast-like cells expressing procollagen III mRNA.
Collagen-Integrin Complex
Structural basis of collagen recognition by integrin alpha2beta1.
We have determined the crystal structure of a complex between the I domain of integrin alpha2beta1 and a triple helical collagen peptide containing a critical GFOGER motif. Three loops on the upper surface of the I domain that coordinate a metal ion also engage the collagen, with a collagen glutamate completing the coordination sphere of the metal. Comparison with the unliganded I domain reveals a change in metal coordination linked to a reorganization of the upper surface that together create a complementary surface for binding collagen. Conformational changes propagate from the upper surface to the opposite pole of the domain, suggesting both a basis for affinity regulation and a pathway for signal transduction. The structural features observed here may represent a general mechanism for integrin-ligand recognition.

Figure: Structure of the I Domain:Collagen Complex (A) Stereo diagram of the alpha2-I domain in complex with the collagen peptide. The I domain helices are shown as cylinders, beta-strands as arrows. The three strands of the collagen triple helix are shown as colored ribbons: leading strand in green, middle strand in yellow, and trailing strand in blue.(B) Close-up of A, showing details of the I domain collagen interface. Selected side chains are shown as ball-and-stick, with H bonds as dotted lines. The metal ion is shown as a blue ball labeled "M." The principal interactions with the middle strand GFOGER motif (yellow) are: phenylalanine makes van der Waals contacts with side chains of N154 and Q215; the hydroxyproline carbonyl hydrogen bonds to N154; the glutamate bonds to the metal and H-bonds to T221; the arginine side chain salt bridges to D215, while its carbonyl H-bonds to H258. The principal interactions with the trailing strand GFOGER motif (blue) are: the main chain carbonyl preceding the GFOGER motif H-bonds to Y157; the phenylalanine makes van der Waals contacts with L286 and Y157; the hydroxyproline H-bonds to N154 main chain; the arginine makes weak ionic interactions with E256. The leading strand (green) makes no contacts with the I domain.(C) Stereo diagram of the MIDAS motif. The metal ion is shown as a blue ball. Coordinating side chains are shown as ball-and-stick, with oxygen atoms in red, carbon in black. Water molecules are labeled "omega"; the collagen glutamate is in gold. The three loops (L1, L2, and L3) coordinating the metal are shown schematically as gray ribbons. E256 from L3, which forms an indirect bond via the equatorial water, has been removed for clarity. The figure is rotated about a vertical axis by 180° relative to B.
Exist in the knot Di organization of the vertebrates, is a body to contain the most abundant structure of quantity fiber protein, have a body about inside 25~ of the protein total amount is 30%.The collagen organizes in the body in of role mainly is combine organization and give knot Di to organize have to of the structure and the machine mechanics property, as tensile strength, pull power and stick to elasticity etc. with reach support and protect of purpose, also be responsible for of the control numerator deeply and promote the wound Yu match to repair with organization and adjust physiology function of controling the cell and organization.
The organization that the collagen content enriches includes parts, such as skeleton, muscle Jian, skin, Jin and ligaments...etc..Have a great deal of collagen in the skin and the knot Di organization of the human body, it and each organ of human body, organize and the cell have the relation that can't box off, having 75% in the normal skin, and having in the whole body 1/3, include hair, skeleton, muscle and knot Di organization, internal organs, tooth, so, it is a skeleton, cartilage, muscle Jian, ligaments, blood vessel, skin necessary composing material.
Health the good collagen have to enrich of flexibility and flexibility, can take rise the cell and the cell prop up, with provide cell outside structure of stability.Young hour, the collagen is very smooth, letting us look like very bright, the age becomes big, the collagen will disappear gradually, letting of the cell prop up decrease, appearing the crease of the loose loose Kua to our skin.Add a collagen in good time, will recover the skin brilliance, keep youth beautiful looks.
The structure of the collagen
The collagen enriches ductility, is by is dissolved in the aqueous parallel lines type a form chain(the parallel linear boundles) not easily, constitute, because the sweet An of the high content is sour, the Pu An is sour and the Qian Pu An is sour, past α -spiral of the structure all doesn't take place, each glimmer of type the chain has three Xuans with left distortion it gather 肽Chain(the polypeptide chain), this threes gathers ※the chain the hydrogen key is close to combine and become one very strong and right Xuan three heavy helixes(triple-helix).
Say simply, real can develop the collagen of the human body physiology function have to by three tie up to round of keep a chain constitute, become spiral structure, seem to be fried dough twist, if three helixes keep stereoscopic structure of chain to encounter to manufacturing or be subjected to high hot and break, then become to be so called generally of clear gum.
The collagen is been smaller by the innumerable of of gum the original fiber(the collagen fiber) constitute, and gum original fiber again by many diameters 1-5 nms, grow several hundred go to several thousand gum of the nms original the tiny fiber(the collagen fibril) constitute.While being observed with electronic microscope, gum original fiber the at interval of 67 nms presents namely a clear and dark of horizontal Wen period.
The collagen numerator unit by three polypeptideses constitute of three spiral structure(the Triple-helical structure).The polypeptide(also call the a chain) of the collagen numerator of different source constitutes a some differences(but likeness), past the combination of the different chain can constitute the collagen numerator unit of different form(Type).
The collagen numerator that so far have already been found and categorize contain 21 kinds of forms, and is distributed in different organization inside the body respectively in.In regard to the constituting of collagen numerator of different form, some by two homologies, and a different chain constitute, as the Type I, V and the IV;Some by three chains of homologies constitute, as the Type II, III, V, XII, X and the VII;And some by three not same chains constitute, as Type VI, IX, and XI.
The molecular weight of the collagen numerator about 283,000 daltonses, grow about the 300 nms, diameter about 1.5 nms, both ends the part of the not- spiral structure call telopeptide.The telopeptide participates the collagen numerator formation that sets up knot, have its meaning on the physiology activity, but then will cause an allergy on the application of the biomedical science material.
The collagen numerator is between cell in the body quality in will not exist alone, but come together the fiber form, after being the fiber formation, polypeptides the Hydroxyproline and Lysine will be subjected to enzyme function and produce numerator inside or the numerator hand over Lian(crosslink), so strengthen it to prop up function.
The collagen fiber also meeting along with the growth of the age, will add thick(the diameter can reach to 50~300 nms) and increase its resilience, have to consider to the age factor of using th

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