Common Names: Gotu kola Indian Pennywort Pennywort Jal Brahmi
Sanskrit Name: Mandukaparni
Parts Used: Whole Plant
Belong to the herbs of crawling sex.The god of thunder root spreads the power very considerable on the caulis stanza not only grow the leafbloomresult return long out uncertain root with absorb nourishmentfix plant like let the caulis of the in front continue to stretch to explore before going toward.Because the its conditional request toward environment is not strict as long as the soil can maintain the appropriate degree of humidity can grow very good grow some god of thunder root in the ground that bare very fast can reach green turn the result.
Gotu kola has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years in India China and Indonesia. Its ability to heal wounds improve mental clarity and treat skin conditions such as leprosy and psoriasis were important reasons for its extensive use in these countries.As per Ayurveda Gotu kola herb is one of the chief herbs for revitalizing the nerves and brain cells; hence primarily known as a brain food in India. It has also been called one of the 'miracle elixirs of life' because legend has it that an ancient Chinese herbalist lived for more than 200 years as a result of using the herb.
PLANT PART USED :
Whole plant and leaves.
It is a slender herbaceous creeper. Stems are long prostate filiform often reddish and with long internodes rooting at nodes.Leaves are long-petioled 1.3 to 6.3 cm in diameterseveral from rootstock and 1 to 3 cm from each node of stem. They are orbicularreniformrather broader than long glabrous on both sides and with numerous slender nerves from a deeply cordate base. Fruit 8mm long ovoid hard with a thick pericarp(8).
The glycosidesbrahmoside and brahminoside have been isolated with their genin brahmic acid. Presence of isobrahmic acid and betulic acid have also been shown.The Madagascar variety contains different glycoside known as asiati-coside.Asiaticoside is not found in the Sri Lankan variety but a related compound centellosideand triterpenic acids centoic acid and centellic acids have been reported. It has been shown thatdepending on the habitatthe saponins can be of two typesthe more common one containing asiaticoside and madecassoside and the less common one showing the additional presence of arabinose in the saponins thus forming brahmoside and brahminoside. The sapogenins and the flavonoid components were the same in both varicties.
Asiatic coinwort appears to have originated in the wetlands of Asia. China India and Malaya were probably within its original range. It apparently spread through the South Pacific and to Mauritius Madagascar East and South Africa Turkey and the southeastern United States many centuries (or perhaps millennia) ago. Since Centella asiatica probably invaded these regions naturally (maybe by seeds carried on the feet of wading birds) and has long been integrated into their ecosystems it should be regarded as a pantropical species and managed as a native wherever evidence for recent human introduction is lacking. Recent genetic studies have shown that the Centella in the southeastern United States is in fact a distinct species to be called C. erecta (American coinwort) but it is very closely related to C. asiatica and practically indistinguishable to all but the geneticists.
Alcoholic extract prolonged the hypnotic effect of sodium phenobarbitone in mice and rats. It reduced the amphetamine toxicity by 20 to 30 per cent in mice. No protection was seen against convulsions produced either by metrazol in mice or by electric shock seizures in rats. Significant fall in rectal temperature of rats which was maximum at two hours was shown with a dose of 100 mg/kg.A mixture of brahmoside and brahminoside glycosides from the plant increased the hexobarbitone-induced sleeping time antagonising the amphetamine-induced agitation in mice. The Centella glycosides when injected into anaesthetised rats significantly lowered the blood pressure. Both the alcoholic extract and the glycosides showed mild tranquilising effect. Singh et al observed that alcoholic extract decreased the acetylcholine and histamine content of the whole brain homogenate of albino rats. Inhibition of the increase in acetylcholine in the brain in stressed rats was observed. However catecholamines were increased.
The whole plant and the juice of the leaves is traditionally used in various mental disorders. It is regarded as one of the best psychotropic drugs. Six week treatment in patients of anxiety neurosis reduced anxiety levels and showed improvement in the mental fatigue rate and immediate memory span. Significant improvement in both general ability and behavioural pattern was obtained with the powder of the plant in a dose of 0.5 g/day in 30 mentally retarded children within 12 weeks. In a double blind study of 57 children with an intelligence quotient score ranging between 90 and 110 significant improvement was observed in the intelligence quotient in children treated with a dose of 0.5 g/day of the powder for one year. In a double blind study of the plant in mentally retarded childrenAppa Rao et al observed a significant increase in the general mental ability overall general adjustment and mental concentration at the end of six months.
Coinwort (Asiatic or American) can be grown around the edges of a water feature incorporated into a wet low maintenance mixed species lawn or kept in a well-irrigated corner of the herb garden. The leaves may be used in salads.
Under the name 'gotu kola' Centella asiatica is revered as one of the great multi-purpose miracle herbs of Oriental medicine. It has been in use for thousands of years and has been employed to treat practically every ailment known to man at one time or place or another. Gotu kola is considered the most powerful of the rejuvenatingherbs in Indian Ayurvedic medicine where it is called 'brahmi' meaning 'greatest of the great.'
In the Ayurvedic tradition it is recommended for treatment of mental disorders immune system deficiencies circulatory problems skin conditions liver ailments epilepsy asthma and bronchitis hair loss tetanus inflammation rheumatism and intestinal complaints. In Chinese medicine gotu kola is regarded as the primary herb for promoting longevity. Its use is traced to LiChing Yun a legendary healer who is said to have lived 256 years as a result of drinking gotu kola tea.
In Western medicine gotu kola is acknowledged to have value in strengthening the blood vessels and thereby improving circulation in combating stress/depression/fatigue in decreasing inflammation in healing wounds and burns and in treating rheumatism and intestinal and urinary disorders. It is regarded as particularly valuable in promoting circulation healing and positive attitude in the bedridden. In India gotu kola is considered 'the herb of enlightenment' and is sometimes burned in incense prior to meditation. It is thought to have great value in supporting spiritual practices by improving meditation promoting clear dreams and enhancing past life recall. It is regarded as useful in developing the crown chakra and in balancing the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Bacoside A assists in release of nitric oxide that allows the relaxation of the aorta and veins to allow the blood to flow more freely through the body. Therefore Brahmi is revered for strenghtening the immune system improving vitality and performance and promoting longevity. Asiaticosides stimulate the reticuloendothelial system where new blood cells are formed and old ones destroyed fatty materials are stored iron is metabolized and immune responses and inflammation begin. The primary mode of action of Centella appears to be on the various phases of connective tissue development which are part of the healing process.
Gotu kola can be made into a tea by steeping 1-2 tsp of dried crushed leaves in a cup of boiling water.
FORMULATION AND DOSAGE :
Juice of the leaves : 10 ml b.i.d.
Bramhi Ghrita : 5 - 10 ml b.i.d.
Ashtanga Ghrita : 5 - 10 ml b.i.d.
Centella Asiatica Triterpenoids promote Collagen-Synthesis:
For over 30 years Centella asiatica has been used in the pharmacy because of its renowned wound healing properties. The presumed method of action is simple: Centella asiatica triterpenoids use the cytokines as second messengers to stimulate the fibroblasts in the dermis. These produce more physiological collagen (type I and III) and the collagen is synthesised before other proteins. In our body the production of collagen type III diminishes after 40 years. This means that our skin loses its taughtness and cohesiveness. The different Centella asiatica extracts have been developed to assist a faster regeneration of the skin. Therefore the first application area for this plant was for wound healing. The interesting aspects for cosmetics such as anti-ageing anti-wrinkle or sun protection have been realised already by such exacting customers as Guerlain Estee Lauder Givenchy Orlane Clinique etc.
In this Article we wish to explain three important studies over the action of Centella asiatica on collagen synthesis.
From the plant Centella asiatica the main ingredients Asiaticoside Madecassoside asiatic acid and madecassic acid were isolated and purely produced. These ingredients were pharmacologically studied for their effect on the binding tissue in the glass tab granuloma model. All four named substances reduced granuloma weight increased the tear resistance and much more noticably he tensile strength. These changes were accompanied by and also caused by an increase in the collagen content in relation to the fresh tissue. The acids were stronger working than the glucosides; relative to the molecular weight all isolated fractions were quite similarly effective. These data are also in accordance with earlier results over the influence of the ageing and ripening of desmotropic substances on the binding and supportive tissue as well as with data from the literature over experimentally acquired and clinically documented action of the ingredients of Centella asiatica.
1993 LVMH Recherche performed a study over Centella asiatica triterpenoids and their effect on collagen synthesis. Collagen is the most commonly occuring protein in the dermis. The influence of asiatic acid madecassic acid and asiaticosides alone or mixed (30 30 or 40 weight %) on collagen synthesis through fibroblasts of human skin has been tested in-vitro. Table 1 shows that every single ingredient as well as the mixture promotes the synthesis of collagen to a similar degree. The mixture and the asiaticosides reduce the cell-associated collagen value whereas with the other two acids this value remained unchanged.
470 /- 97
1362 /- 82 ( 189 %)
1597 /- 199 ( 239 %)
1557 /- 245 ( 231 %)
1769 /- 45 ( 276 %)
183 /- 43
158 /- 29
150 /- 19
140 /- 37
133 /- 30
In 1997 Prof. Macquart (INSERM) confirmed at a conference on dermatology in munich that asiatic acid madecassic acid and asiaticoside (the so-called Extracted Titrate of Centella Asiatica E.T.C.A.) are capable of stimulating the wound-healing process in vivo. Subcutaneous treatment with E.T.C.A. in Wundkammern showd a concentration dependent increase in the dry weight DNA protein collagen and uronic acid parts. As an example the collagen synthesis had improved by 296 % after four weeks in wundkammern with E.T.C.A. It is assumed that because of their terpenic properties the substances penetrate into the skin and send signals to the DNA level. It is also not to be ruled out that E.T.C.A. could regulate cytokine excretion.
The 8 extracts of the Division Serdex/Laboratoires Roche-Nicholas - asiatic acid E.T.C.A. heterosides asiaticosides E.M.A.C.A. E.P.C.A. E.R.C.A. and Amel Genines differ from one another in their concentrations of triterpenes but the results of all studies apply of course to all of the active ingredients.
Chemical Constituents :
Indian Gotu kola herb contains the following glycosides:
indocentelloside brahmoside brahminoside asiaticoside thankuniside and isothankuniside. The corresponding triterpene acids obtained on hydrolysis of the glycosides are indocentoic brahmic asiatic thankunic and isothankunic. These acids except the last two are also present in free form in the plant apart from isobrahmic and betulic acids. The presence of mesoinositol a new oligosaccharide entellose? kaempferol quercetin and stigmasterol have also been reported. Also contains a green strongly volatile oil composed of an unidentified terpene acetate camphor cineole and other essential oils.
Centella Asiatica purified triterpenes:
The purified extract contains Asiaticoside Madecassic and Asiatic acids
Asiaticoside not less than 36% and 44% and free genine acids between 54% and 66%
Extracted from the swamp plant Centella Asiatica native to Sri Lanka and South Africa this oriental herb has been used for centuries in both traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. The Centella Asiatica or Hydrocotyle Asiatica is a sweetish acrid digestible plant belonging to the family of Apiaceae or Umbelliferae sometimes also named Hydrocotylaceae. Traditional uses for the Centella plant include as a cover crop in tea and rubber plantations. In some countries the plant is also eaten either raw or cooked in salads and curries. Use in herbal teas in association with ginseng capsicum and meadowsweet is also reported.
R1 = H ; R2 = OH : Asiatic acid
R1 = OH ; R2 = OH :Madecassic acid
R1 = H ; R2 = glu-glu-rhamn: Asiaticoside
APPEARANCE: Creamy-white powder
SOLUBILITY: Soluble in pyridine propylene glycol
ethanol. Insoluble in water
LOSS ON WEIGHT: Not more than 4.0 %
RESIDUE ON IGNITION: Not more than 1.0 %
HEAVY METALS: Not more than 20 ppm
ASSAY: Asiaticoside : Not less than 36 %
HPLC Free genine acids : Between 54 % and 66 %
MICROBIOLOGY: Complies with EP
STORAGE: Sealed container and protected from light and moisture
Benefits and Uses of Gotu Kola:
Wound Healing and Skin Lesions : Gotu kola contains triterpenoids which strengthen the skin increase the concentration of antioxidants in wounds and restore inflamed tissues by increasing blood supply. Hence gotu kola has been used externally for burns psoriasis prevention of scar formation following surgery recovery from an episiotomy following vaginal delivery of a newborn and treatment of external fistulas.
Venous Insufficiency and Varicose Veins : When blood vessels lose their elasticity blood pools in the legs and fluid leaks out of the blood vessels causing the legs to swell (venous insufficiency). In another study of people with varicose veins ultrasound examination revealed improvements in the vascular tone of those who took gotu cola.
High Blood Pressure : In a study of people with heart disease and high blood pressure those who took abana; an Ayurvedic herbal mixture containing gotu kola experienced a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure compared to those who took placebo.
Anxiety : Triterpenoids have been shown to soothe anxiety and boost mental function in mice.
Scleroderma : One study involving 13 females with scleroderma found that gotu kola decreased joint pain skin hardening and improved finger movement.
Insomnia : Gotu kola has been used to help people with insomnia because of its sedative effects.
Gotu Kola Powder:
Introduction: Gotu kola is an outstandingly important medicinal herb that is widely used in the Orient and is becoming increasingly popular in the West. In India it is chiefly valued as a revitalizing herb that strengthens nervous function and memory. Gotukola has recently become popular due to its cosmetic and pharmaceutical properties.
Manufacturing Process: The powder of gotu Kola is prepared with great caution as the leafs contain volatile oil.The Gotu kola leaves are collected and then cleaned. Drying of Gotu kola leaves is done in the shade and then powdered.Gotu Kola powder is packed immediately upon grinding in aspectic air tight jar for futher use and trasportation.