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夏枯草(萃取液)

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一、 Introduction :

Prunella vulgaris L.
Cause

Summer of the lips form section the withered grass has the circle of purple red San inflorescence with airtight tube form, becoming a flock is heavy to was born in each way a side, Taiwanese everyplace from the seaside to high mountain all it is thus clear that its Fang Zong, whenever spring many flowers put together, always call the person halt the foot on the prowl, cant not bear to leave.It is to get herbage for a year, the stub is high about the 20-50 cms, the caulis cluster gets, square, tiny bring red;And in order to grow an oval form to cover with the needle form, leaf's slice to get.The corolla is the tube form lips form, the upper lip is two Lies, the lower lip is three Lies.Have the nutlet of the brown long oval.After going to summer solstice the first half department withers away then, as a result is called withered grass of summer.


[Nickname] the wooden stick grass, iron color grass, big head head with withered flower, summer


[Source] for the lips form section summer the withered grass belong to a plant withered grass Prunella vulgaris L for summer. [Brunella vulgaris L.]Of the flower Sui or whole grasseses


[Appearance characteristic]

Get herbage for many years, high about 30 cms, whole stubs white down, have already crawled a form caulis.The caulis has another and do not divide into, four Leng forms, erection or inclined heading up, usually bring red purple color.The leaf has a long handle towards getting, the leaf of the caulis lower part, upper part the leaf has no handle gradually;Leaf's slice the oval form cover with the needle form or the Ling form narrow and oval, grow a 1.5-4.5 cms, the breadth 0.5-1.4 cms, carry the bluntness head or the bluntness point first, the Ji department Xie form, whole good luck or have the Shu teeth of a saw, the both sides all has hair, having gland to order below.The end of spring and early summer blooms, round umbrella inflorescence, 6 spend a round, descend the quilt a rightness of breadths kidneys form the Bao slice of the hard hair, many rounds become a crest to get the Sui form inflorescence intensively, growing a 2-5 cms, breadth about 2 cms, form,such as wooden stick, ;The inflorescence Ji department has a leaf a form the total Bao a rightness;The calyx tube form, the corolla lips form, purple or white;The upper lip hat form, 2 Lies, descends the tail half exhibition,

3 deep Lies;Stamen 4s stretch out a corolla outside;Nutlet three Leng forms grow oval, brown.Summer the end whole stubseses wither away, past grass with withered summer.


[Getting the Jing distributes] was born in the high elevation hill path side, lawn, Lin-pien in Taiwan


[Educate important point] wild article, pleased and warm and moist environment, bear strict and cold, the seed breeds.


[Collect to process] spend Sui to present palm tree in summer red hour~withered yellow hour adopt to accept, remove miscellaneous quality, dry in the sun


[Sex flavor function] bitterness, H, cold.Pure liver clear eyes, the pure heat spreads knot and declines to press


[Chemistry composition]

Spending the Sui contains withered grass of summer(Prunellin)is a kind of soap, Its Dollar the black Suo that is the Dun tartaric acid together, and contains to swim to leave is togethersour with together Dun tartaric acid, carrot , β -The fragrant resin Chun and assortment .The leaf contains gold silk peach (Hyperoside), the Lu D(rutin).The seed contains the fat oil and the solution fat .The whole grasseses contain water-soluble is about 3.5% without the machine salt, among them, the chlorination potassium has , the sulfuric acid potassium to have , sodium chloride and magnesium salt about;Contain volatile oil again, the main composition in oil is the right Xuan camphor and small Hui fragrant Tong(fenchone), vitamin B1.Contain sour etc. of the amiable type and anti- type coffee of a little amount alkaloid in addition and still.


[The lord cures]

The lymphoid knot tubercle, goiter, the high blood pressure disease, headache faint, headache, buzzing in the ears, the eyes are red swollen pain, tuberculosis, impatient mastitis, mumps, the Yong Jie swollen poison.


二、Medical treatment effect

Research


1. Summer withered grass the fried liquid infuses stomach to have to decline to press a function obviously to the dog, declining the kidney high blood pressure dog to press a function more obvious


2. Summer the withered grass has abundant potassium salt, past beneficial urine function


3. Suppress a germ experiment:

Summer the withered grass fry to use the tube dilution method 1:1280 rightnesses of Smiths and the ambition He surname dysentery rod bacteria, 1:640 rightnesses of person type the tubercle rod bacteria all has already repressed a function


4. Summer withered grass to in the body rabbit heart, leave a body to don't need heart and leave small quantity vogue of the body Chan Chu heart courageously, the constringency flaps an aggrandizement, then repressing for a great deal of hour, the constringency flaps to diminish


5.Summer the withered grass fry, leaving the body womb, bowel tube to the domestic rabbit to all is excited function, can cause womb strong keep sex constringency, bowel tube peristalsis strengthen


6.Summer the withered grass fry to infuse to flow to have already extended an afferent function to the legs of Chan Chu


Effect


1.Summer the withered grass contain the anti- Yan function, the sugar skin quality hormone synthesize, secretes in its nti- Yan effect and the adrenal glands skin quality of strengthen germane.

Horse the virtuous kidness wait for very to have already used withered grass of summer of the animal experiment result enunciation to repress a function obviously in early days to the Yan disease reaction.The sugar skin quality hormone synthesize, secretes in its nti- Yan effect and the adrenal glands skin quality of strengthen germane.Influence the research confimation to the immunity organ, summer withered grass in addition to repressing such the non- particularity immunity function for being like the Yan disease reaction, also expressed to the particularity immunity function to repress a function rather and strongly.Chen waits for frequently with the withered grass of summer to take orally a withered grass cream of the liquid and summer to continue to infuse stomach to the small rat for 7 days recently, all can repress the croton oil markedly with the result that the small rat ear swells, to the big rat corn fork vegetables and egg the pure sex foot swell the model and the big rat cotton ball proud flesh swollen all have to repress a function obviously.


2. Summer the withered grass inject the liquid subcutaneous injection, can make the animal thymus gland, spleen atrophy obviously, the adrenal glands enlarges obviously, the blood plasma skin quality Chun level goes up obviously, expressing it is a kind of immunity depressant


3. Anti-virus function:

The body experiments enunciation outside, summer the withered grass fry to the dysentery rod bacteria, typhoid rod bacteria, cholera Hu germ, escherichia coliform and transform rod bacteria, staphylococcus and person a type a tubercle rod bacteria to all have different degree to repress a function.Its Chun immerses a liquid the top of the development Ji to have already repressed a function as well to the green Nong rod bacteria at the Qiong fat.

Its water fries to have different degree to repress a function towards allowing yellow tinea germ of small tooth afterbirth of Lan surname tinea germ, the Ao Du Ang surname waiting for pathogenic skin fungi also in the tube.To the experiment tuberculosis of the small rat, summer the withered grass can make the lung department pathological changes have to ease.The foreign scholar proves withered grass of summer thick lift a thing obvious repress HIV, and have a lower cell toxicity, summer the withered grass soap(prunellin) has already repressed a function to the HIV.


4. Decline blood sugar

The research expresses that summer the valid composition(temporarily decide for decline sugar vegetable) within withered grass can repress the small rat blood sugar that four oxygen Mi Dings cause to go up obviously, and not poisonous, research enunciation summer the withered grass withdraw a thing and can repress the small rat blood sugar that the Ding causes of the adrenaline and four oxygen Mis to go up obviously with improvement sugar metabolism obstacle and repair the β cell make the Yi island case secrete to reach treatment purpose normally and then this function mechanism relevant.Clinic's preparing to try the result manifestation to decline the sugar vegetable can increase insulin inside the body to secrete.


5.Decline blood pressure

Summer the withered grass water immerse a liquid, the ethanol water to immerse the liquid and  functions that the ethanol immerse a liquid to have already reduced the anaesthesia animal blood pressure.Summer the caulis, leaf, the fruit Sui and whole grasseses of the withered grass have already declined to press a function, but the function of the fruit Sui is weaker.Concerning the valid composition that declines to press.Someone thinks to is the potassium salt that it contains, also someone think to have nothing to do with the potassium salt.Cloud celebrates etc. to separate to the main composition A from the summer two chlorine methanes of the withered grass withdraws a thing, withdrawing from the methyl alcohol the part separates to take AN as a main dollar of total soap, experiment certificate AN and total the soap all has already declined to press a function.Pass by the big rat experiment enunciation, summer withered grass the total soap amount of starts having in the  obvious decline to press a function;The logarithms amount of and comfortable piece of the total soap press, the constringency press to have obvious relativity.Recently what Xiao Yan etc. use the domestic rabbit as material, passing the mode that the medicine establishment experiment blood pressure goes up, imitating abnormal state under of condition, observe withered grass of summer fried to the function of the blood pressure.Inject 0.2 adrenalines with 0.3 mlses after the domestic rabbit body inner ear toward the good luck vein, finds the adrenaline can make the blood pressure go up, immediately again to rabbit body inner ear


6.Cholesterol-lowering

There is the research enunciation, with summer withered grass is main composition of four Anne capsule(summer withered grass, leech, golden thread...etc.) adjustable stanza various animals of of the blood fat comparison, make greatly white rat, the diabetes domestic rabbit model of the milk You of the TG, VLDL and blood fat index number reduce.


7. Anti-cancer function

The modern pharmacology learns withered grass of summer of the research enunciation to have the certain anti- tumor function.Also someone thinks its poisonous side effect is strong, having no clinic value.Lee etc. passes the pharmacology sieving certificate, summer withered grass in the bear tartaric acid and derivatives contained to the cell P388, L1810 and the human body lung tumor cell AN a 549 all have a poisonous function of obvious cell[11].King Kun etc. choose to use a person the gastric gland Yang SGC 7901 cells for the material, research by single flavor medicine summer withered grass through water fried the Chun lift legal system become of summer the withered grass inject a liquid(IPV) 7901 cells to propagate the influence of the Diao Wu to the SGC, showing  IPVs of densities can repress SGC 7901 growth of the cells and induce its Diao Wu obviously, and think anti-'s propagating and inducing the tumor cell Diao Wu is a summer one of the withered grass anti- tumor function mechanism as a result.



三、 Composition

1, sugar

The summer contains to swim to leave in the withered grass of the single sugar, double is sugar and many sugar.Foreign scholar once the withered grass is swum to leave with spend withered grass of summer greatly in the separation from the summer of the glucose, half lactose, fructose and cane sugar, combine of sweet dew sugar, glucose, Arabian sugar, the wood sugar and rat Lee's sugar.The Tabba waits for someone a withered grass water to lift a cent in thing from the summer a kind of gather sugar more withered grass soap(prunellin) for summer, through first step measurement molecular weight is 10000, have the sulphur element in the numerator[2].


Sugar is many Qian Ji Quans, many Qian Ji Tongs and the ability water solution and the much borner Qian Ji Quan or many the Qian Ji Tong of organic combine

Thing, wide cloth nature.


SugarThing?BE contain to have anotherThe Quan of the Ji?Or manyJi TongCompound.It is mainly by the C, the H and O(carbon, , Oxygen)three Chong elementsBecome, sugarAgainCarbohydrate, its molecular formula usually is indicated with the Cn(the H2 Os) n.


The cause of the carbohydrate

The cause of the carbohydrate name is the molecular formulas that the biochemist finds sugar compound formerly and can write the Cn(the H2 Os) m, so think to is the compound of the carbon and water, but the later detection prove much sugar and be unsuited to its bove-mentioned molecular formula.As the rat Lee's sugar(the C6 H12 O5).

Some match an above-mentioned, the type isn't sugar, waiting for as the formaldehyde(the CH2 Os).So speak strictly, be called the carbohydrate to the sugar is incorrect.


Classification

Sugar can be divided into mostly several types as follows:


The single sugar-sugar grows a the most simple type of the structure, is not dissolved in a water generally, the simple single sugar is many Qian Ji Quans or many Qian Ji Tongs that have 3-7 carbon atoms generally.Glucose, fructose, half lactose etc..

Low gather sugar(few sugar)-BE come together by 2-9 single sugar sons and become.The water is after solving can born and single sugar.


Two sugar-two sugar by the dichotomy son single sugar of sugar dehydration and become, Dollar is another the single sugar of a member.Two sugar water solution young mans become the single sugar of two numerators.As lactose, cane sugar, malt sugar


Three sugar-water solution young mans become the single sugar of three numerators.As cotton seed sugar

Four sugar

Five sugar

Gather sugar more-BE come together by 10 above single sugar sons and become.After water solving can much borner single sugar or low gather sugar.Become single sugar to constitute according to the water solution young man whether homology, can be divided into:

Gather many sugar together-together gather many sugar is constituted by a kind of single sugar, water solution young man become of same race and single sugar.As Arabian gum, sugar dollar, starch, cellulose etc..


Miscellaneous gather many sugar-miscellaneous gather many sugar is constituted by various single sugar, water solution young man become the single sugar of the different category.If glue many sugar, half cellulose etc..


Cane sugar

The cane sugar is mankind one of the basic foods, already several thousand years.Cane sugar according to pure degree of high and low can be divided into three;The refined sugar, sugar and slice sugar.

History

Sugar cane the original habitat may be the Niu guinea, spreading to go to afterwards south sea islands with India.About at the Zhou Dynasty Xuan king stream into Chinese south.


The Han dynasty goes to Sui a dynasty

The international community"cane sugar"(sugar, sucrose) includes "sacca" root with"the west pole stone is airtight" and"the west country stone is airtight" of the Chinese ancient times all, coming from Sanskrit sakara.Explaining the cane sugar's delivering is at first ancient India, streaming into China and world through the Silk Road everywhere.


Glucose is a nature to distribute the most wide single sugar, it is a kind of many Qian Ji Chuns.Molecular formula:C6 H12 O6;Structure Chien's type:The CH2 OHs(CHOH)4 CHOs.Can descend a creation from the photo-synthesis of the plant.In the candy manufacturing industry and cure Yao to have an extensive usage.

The starch is a kind of many carbohydrate(polysaccharide).Makes a kind of method that the starch is the plant Zhu to save energy. Several glucose numerators with α -1, 4-sugar The key beginning and end connects with each other and becomes.Present spiral form structure in the space. The starch meets iodine to assume a blue.This wasn't the starch and iodine to take place chemical reaction, but starch Luo

The Xuan is just central to get empty cave and can permit the iodine numerator, passing virtuous R.O.C. power of Fan, both become a kind of blue chemistry thing.The starch can be divided in to keep the chain starch(the sugar starch) and pay the chain starch(the gum starch).


2, the Zi Chun turn a thing

Meng the positive wood wait for withered grass shoulder plant fruit Sui, caulis from the summer, leaf etc. the part separate 8 Zi Chun compounds.4 among them present to swim to leave appearance, 4 is glucose.Mainly there are the valley Zi Chun, bean Zi Chun, spinach Zi Chun, glucose and β -fragrant resin Chun etc..The king wishes to raise to wait for someone to still examine a kind of new Nan Pu sugar compound recently, nameding after a summer the withered grass soap B[3].



3, organic acid

From the summer the withered grass belongs to in the plant separate of the organic acids composition mainly has a phenolic acid with the long chain fatty acids.Include an agreeable type is sour with the coffee of the anti- type and oil the sour and second oil is sour, the laurel is sour, the palm tree Tong is sour, the meat nutmeg is sour, the stearic acid are sour with 24 alkanes.The domestic scholar uses the method of GC MS, the separation in the withered grass gets soft fatty acids, soft fatty acids B ester from the summer, 6, 918 carbons two Xis are sour, stearic acid, 3, 6, 1720 carbons three Xis are sour, the oil is sour, the peanut oil sour and hot wood son oil is sour[4].The king wishes to raise to wait for someone to still separate a kind of new organic acid for the very first time:2 αs, 3 αs two the Qian Ji black Su's 12 Xis 28 sour.The fringe of hair Xing wait for someone to have already measuresed withered grass of summer are the content of the Dun tartaric acid and the bear tartaric acids together in two kinds of valid compositions.


4, flavonoid compound

Currently detection mainly for the flavonoid, flavonoid Chun, spend a green vegetable and it, medium of the sugar is much in 3s.Mainly there are five Qian flavonoids, fragrances, spend a green vegetable, the Cui Qiao vegetable, gold silk peach, the wood Xi grass etc..


5, Zi Tong compound

White hair summer the withered grass have of cup the Xian Zi Tong has the anti- tumor activity, Liu Bin waits for someone to separate and measuresed a white hair summer the cup in the withered grass the content of the Xian Zi Tong recently[6].


6, fragrant bean plain compound

The Russian scholar divides into in the withered grass from the summer 3 fragrant bean plain compounds, the manager turns the constant measurement and purple outside and red and outside spectrum analysis to predict for the umbrella form Tong, the station of Gen Dang and seven.


7, volatile oil

The summer has various volatile oils in the withered grass, deer good etc. research summer the volatile oil composition of the withered grass, get the oil rate as, make use of GC/FT, one IR checks from Communist China 23 have already known for a set of cent.Among them 1, 8 one the An oil Jing and β a the Pai Xi has a total volatile oil content  above.King's sea wave waits for the withered grass fruit Sui volatile oil to examine 14 compounds from the summer, main is a l, 6 wreath J Tongs two Xis, 16 alkaneses are sour, 36 alkane etc.s.The d-camphor, d in the volatile oil-small Hui the fragrant Tong, the An oil Jing...etc. all have anti- Yan, anti-virus and even breathe heavily with painful function in town, have An leaf, the camphor kind the feeling of the fresh and cool incitement, the aroma mightiness, use in the medicine and the cosmetics.


四、 Hairdressing effect


The withered grass withdraws the effect ingredient of the liquid:Summer withered grass , Lived blood to spread, CuSkinIs the blood tiny to follow, IncreaseProviding the blood provide oxygen, CuThe afterbirth freshman's function.NewGenerationOf acceleration abilityHelp skinIs the pore well comfortable, Make poreOf each Chong filth withThe afterbirth fragment ejects easily





AIMTo study the constituents of the spikes of Prunella vulgaris L. METHODS: The constituents were separated by using various chromatographies and the structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral analysis. RESULTS: Six compounds were isolated from the spikes of Prunella vulgaris L., their structures were identified as β-amyrin (1), α-spinasterol (2), stigmasterol (3), stigmast-7-en-3β-ol (4), caffeic acid (5) and 2α,3α-24-trihydroxy-olean-12-ene-28-oic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6). In addition, eight fatty acids were isolated and identfied by GC-MS from the lipid fraction. CONCLUSION: Compound 6 was a new saponin and named as vulgarsaponin A. Compounds 24 were obtained for the first time from this plant.

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